Methods for Evaluation of Structural and Biological Properties of Antiinvasive Natural Products

Prostate cancer is considered the most common cancer form among males in Western countries. Very limited options are available for the treatment of advanced metastatic prostate cancer. More than 50% of today’s anticancer drugs are natural products or derived from a natural origin. To discover new entities with potential to treat prostate cancer at androgen-refractory stages, 36 structurally diverse natural products were screened using functional-based assays. The tested compounds were selected broadly from major secondary metabolites of plants, marine invertebrates, and fungi. These diverse entities were prescreened for their antiinvasive ability against prostate cancer cells, PC-3M, using spheroid disaggregation assay. Active representatives including three selected structural classes, a macrolide, a β-carboline alkaloid, and a phenylmethylene hydantoin (PMH), were then tested for their ability to stabilize junctional complexes and enhance cell-cell adhesion of androgen independent prostate cancer cells. Transepithelial resistance (TER) and paracellular permeability assays were used to elicit the aforementioned properties. These studies led to the emergence of PMHs as a small molecule class from the marine sponge Hemimycale arabica with a unique potential to attenuate CT-stimulated prostate cancer growth, metastasis, paracellular permeability, and enhance TER and cell-cell adhesion of prostate cancer cells. The unique activities of PMHs were validated using several in vitro assays followed by in vivo testing in two mice models. A 3D QSAR was established using SYBYL 8.1-Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) model. This chapter includes the methodology for evaluation of structural and biological properties of new antiinvasive molecules with an exceptional potential to stabilize junctional complexes from diverse natural product sources.



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